a group of otherwise ad -hoc computers to operate with similar parameters. They enable centralized authentication, allowing users from multiple computers and multiple platforms to authenticate against a single database, creating a more user-friendly and ultimately more secure system. In the next chapter, we will further explore directory services, with a specific focus on integrating OS X client desktops with Apple s Open Directory platform. Later, in 3, we will discuss integrating OS X client desktops with Microsoft s Active Directory system.

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playing standard audio formats has improved, these alternatives have fallen out of favor because of their complexity and nonportability. However, they still may be appropriate when porting legacy software, creating sound effects for games or when working on specialized apps such as a virtual piano. If you look through RIM s documentation, you will notice that it includes references to MIDIControl. This specialized Control offers methods to program MIDI channels and send MIDI events to be played. Theoretically, this would offer a standardized way to play generated music. However, as with much of MMAPI there is no requirement that vendors implement it, and RIM has chosen not to do so. Attempts to create a MIDIControl will result in an unsupported media type exception. Note that you can still play existing MIDI files as shown above, just not create low-level MIDI events. However, RIM does support a similar alternate mechanism, the ToneControl. Unlike other audio playback, you do not need a file or input stream to gain access to this player and control. Instead, Manager offers a custom string, TONE_DEVICE_LOCATOR (with the value "device://tone"), which can be used to retrieve a compatible Player. Once you have a ToneControl, you can program a monotonic tone sequence. Bytes define the tempo, note pitch, note duration, and volume, and they control progress through the song. The following snippet shows how to play the opening of Beethoven s Fifth Symphony using a ToneControl.

In 1, we discussed Directory Services and the various types of information that a Directory Service can provide In contrast, this chapter focuses on utilizing a centralized Directory Service for user and group resolution and authentication Utilizing a centralized Directory Service is absolutely essential to the efficient management of your fleet of computers and eliminates the need to synchronize user and group databases across all of your computers Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) is the building block for most modern directory services solutions Whether you are using Microsoft s Active Directory or Apple s Open Directory, to a large degree the basis for their implementation lies in the LDAPv3 specification As such, LDAP in this context consists of a communication protocol, a data scheme that is used to store directory information, and the replication infrastructure to distribute that data across multiple remote data stores.

byte tempo = 30; // 120 bpm byte eight = 8; // eighth-note byte whole = 64; // whole note byte C4 = ToneControl.C4; // Middle C byte eFlat = (byte)(C4 + 3); byte gMajor = (byte)(C4 + 7); byte[] beethoven = { ToneControl.VERSION, 1, ToneControl.TEMPO, tempo, gMajor, eight, gMajor, eight, gMajor, eight, eFlat, whole // Buh-buh-buh BUH! }; Player player = Manager.createPlayer(Manager.TONE_DEVICE_LOCATOR); player.realize(); ToneControl control = (ToneControl)player.getControl("ToneControl"); control.setSequence(beethoven); player.start();

Because Mac OS X is built from the ground up to accommodate for LDAP, there are myriad of options in terms of automation and management functionality that can be provided to Mac OS X clients This isn t to say that you can t leverage the same LDAP structures built in 1 in order to provide directory services to Microsoft Windows, but the context for this chapter will focus primarily on Mac OS X directory service clients In 9, we will look at providing some aspects of directory services to Windows clients When a client is added to a directory services environment this is often referred to as binding There are two general types of binding that can be performed by an OS X client The first kind is referred to as a trusted, or authenticated, bind.

apply(this, args); } instance[funcIdentifier] = Genericsexpand(proxyPrototype, {.

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